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Paraffin wax (or simply "paraffin") is mostly found as a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 °C to 64 °C ( 116.6°F to 147.2°F), and having a density of around 0.9 g/cm3.[3] It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters. Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents, but burns readily.

Paraffin wax (C25H52) is an excellent material to store heat, having a specific heat capacity of 2.14–2.9 J g−1 K−1 (joule per gram per kelvin) and a heat of fusion of 200–220 J g−1. This property is exploited in modified drywall for home building material: it is infused in the drywall during manufacture so that, when installed, it melts during the day, absorbing heat, and solidifies again at night, releasing the heat.[8] Paraffin wax phase change cooling coupled with retractable radiators was used to cool the electronics of the Lunar Rover. Wax expands considerably when it melts and this allows its use in thermostats for industrial, domestic and, particularly, automobile purposes.

In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by adding branching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVA copolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffin with a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarely used for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittle at room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, like beeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expressly formulated for the purpose



Paraffin wax

- Candle-making
- Coatings for waxed paper or cloth
- Food-grade paraffin wax:
- Shiny coating used in candy-making; although edible, it is nondigestible, passing right through the body without being broken down
- Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese
- Sealant for jars, cans, and bottles
- Chewing gum additive
- Investment casting
- Anti-caking agent, moisture repellent, and dustbinding coatings for fertilizers
- Agent for preparation of specimens for histology
- Bullet lubricant – with other ingredients, such as olive oil and beeswax
- Crayons
- Solid propellant for hybrid rocket motors
- Component of surfwax, used for grip on surfboards in surfing
- Component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards
- Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges, commonly used in skateboarding
- Ink. Used as the basis for solid ink different color blocks of wax for thermal printers. The wax is melted and then sprayed on the paper producing images with a shiny surface
- Microwax: food additive, a glazing agent with E number E905
- Forensics aid: the nitrate test uses paraffin wax to detect nitrates and nitrites on the hand of a shooting suspect
- Antiozonant agents: blends of paraffin and micro waxes are used in rubber compounds to prevent cracking of the rubber; the antiozonant waxes can be produced from synthetic waxes, FT wax, and Fischer Tropsch wax
- Mechanical thermostats and actuators, as an expansion medium for activating such devices
- "Potting" guitar pickups, which reduces microphonic feedback caused from the subtle movements of the pole pieces
- Wax baths for beauty and therapy purposes
- Thickening agent in many Paintballs, as used by Crayola
- An effective, although comedogenic, moisturiser in toiletries and cosmetics such as Vaseline
- Prevents oxidation on the surface of polished steel and iron.

Petroleum jelly is a flammable, semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons, having a melting-point usually ranging from a little below to a few degrees above 75°C (167°F). It is colorless, or of a pale yellow color (when not highly distilled), translucent, and devoid of taste and smell when pure. It does not oxidize on exposure to the air, and is not readily acted on by chemical reagents. It is insoluble in water. It is soluble in dichloromethane, chloroform, benzene, diethyl ether, carbon disulfide and oil of turpentine.

There is a common misconception (resulting from the similar feel they produce when applied to human skin) that petroleum jelly and glycerol (glycerine) are physically similar. While petroleum jelly is a non-polar hydrocarbon hydrophobic (water-repelling) and insoluble in water, glycerol (not a hydrocarbon but an alcohol) is the opposite: it is so strongly hydrophilic (water-attracting) that by continuous absorption of moisture from the air, it produces the feeling of wetness on the skin, similar to the greasiness produced by petroleum jelly. The feeling is similar, but petroleum jelly repels water, and glycerine attracts it.

Producers of microcrystalline wax[3] and related materials often produce petrolatums. Some testing standards used by these companies are as follows:

Drop Melt Point (ASTM D-127)
Cone Penetration (ASTM D-937)
Saybolt Color (ASTM D-6045)
Lovibond Color

Depending on the specific industry the petrolatum is used for, the petrolatum may be USP (United States Pharmacopeia) grade, BP (British Pharmacopeia) or Ph. Eur. (Pharmacopeia Europa). This pertains to the processing and handling of the petrolatum so it is suitable for cosmetic and personal care applications.

Slack wax, also called petroleum wax or Crude Wax, is an unrefined mixture of high-melting hydrocarbons, mainly of the normal straight-chain type, still containing a fairly high percentage of oil. It is obtained by filtration(as such or after addition of a solvent)from high boiling distillates or residual oils. Slack wax is primarily obtained as by-product in the manufacture of lubricating oils. The crude wax made from distillate oils is used for the manufacture of scale wax and paraffin wax or serves as a feedstock for the manufacture of petroleum chemicals such as synthetic detergents. The crude wax made from residual oils is refined to make a range of microcrystalline waxes.

White Mineral oil is derived from crude oil, however its high degree of refinement dictates the properties it takes on. White mineral oil, often referred to as white oil, is crystal clear, odorless and can be found in a variety of different viscosities. White oil is either derived from one of two of base oils, naphthenic or paraffinic. Depending on the end application dictates which base oil, is to be used. Naphthenic base oils produce white oils which an application requires high specific gravity and a high heat resistance, an example of an application would be lubricants. Whereas paraffinic base oils are used when the end white oil is used to produce lighter viscosity and lower heat resistance, such an applications would include in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, plastics, textiles and foods.

A candle is a solid block of fuel (commonly wax) and an embedded wick, which is lit to provide light, and sometimes heat.

Today, most candles are made from paraffin. Candles can also be made from beeswax, soy and other plant waxes, and tallow (a by-product of beef-fat rendering). Gel candles are made from a mixture of paraffin and plastic.[citation needed]

A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler. Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders, to elaborate chandeliers.

The heat of the match used to light the candle melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel. Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a flame. This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel, the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action, and the liquefied fuel is then vaporized to burn within the candle's flame.

The burning of the fuel takes place in several distinct regions (as evidenced by the various colors that can be seen within the candle's flame). Within the bluer regions, hydrogen is being separated from the fuel and burned to form water vapor. The brighter, yellower part of the flame is the remaining carbon being oxidized to form carbon dioxide.